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梅晗,Nichol

Notting Hill,the blue gate...

 
 
 

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关于我

中国在线教育雅思阅读No1,一年间词霸营和阅读高分营学员愈2万.历任天道国际教育集团教学教务部总监,新东方VIP学习部教学总监, 英联邦项目经理,新东方集团培训师. 非典型双鱼男,双子,射手,狮子自动回避

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2009.08.08雅思A类阅读回忆  

2009-08-10 01:00:10|  分类: 雅思阅读机经 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

"Done,最近太忙,近几次考试分析择日奉上:)睡觉去咯!"

 

第一篇        新西兰海藻(Seaweeds in New Zealand)

题型: List of Headings & Matching & Flow Charts

文章内容:

A.新西兰有很多海带。

B.海带好久以来都under-use了。

C.海带可以提炼一种叫做agar(琼脂)的东西啦据说可以做很多东西撒,具体分成两种主要用途。

D.海带产量。

E.海带可以分成red、green、brown三种;先讲了它们三种颜色的变化;又讲了它们各自分布于海洋的哪个部位:近海/邻海/远海。以及不同海带的作用。(这里有很多指代,后面题目里会发现要不停往前找——如Nichol老师所说嘻~)

F.海带为啥能漂在水上?

List of Headings:A: Nutritious value of seaweeds

                             B: Various products of seaweeds

                             C: Under-use of native species

                             D. Locations and features of different seaweeds

                             E. How seaweeds reproduce and grow

                             F: Why it doesn’t dry or sink

                             (无example)

Flow Charts:根据C段写海带的用途

2009.08.08雅思A类阅读回忆 - 梅晗 - 梅晗,Nichol

Matching: 1. A (Green seaweeds--can resist exposure in sunlight at high-water mark);

                    2. C (Red seaweeds--grow in far open sea water);

                    3. B (Brown seaweeds--shares the habitat with karengon)

 

Passage 1 New Zealand Seaweeds

Seven paragraphs:

Paragraph A. Seaweeds are very nutritious, rich in iodine and a variety of vitamins. Japanese, Eskimos and aboriginal Maori people regularly eat seaweeds, and have a very low percentage of population contracting a certain kind of disease thanks to their diet.

Paragraph B. There are many species of seaweeds in New Zealand. And there is one called Gigartina, similar to the Irish moss or carrageen and thus is often referred to as New Zealand carrageen. There is a substance called agar extracted from seaweeds. It can be made into food “sea meal”, either canned or processed in other ways. There are also many other aspects where agar can be used: in medicine, such as cough mixture, and many others. Australia even imported agar to use it in toothpaste.

Paragraph C. There are thousands of native species of seaweeds in New Zealand. However, this resource is not well used.

Paragraph D. There are three types of seaweeds: green, brown and red. Green seaweeds often grow in shallow waters exposed to a large amount of sunshine near the shore, while brown in deeper waters to limited amount of sunshine and red far away from the shore to little or no sunshine. Brown seaweeds sometimes share the habitat with Karengon.

Paragraph E. Seaweeds have their own way to reproduce and grow.

Paragraph F. Some seaweeds contain bubbles or fluids in their body that they might float in the water. And some even has special mechanism to resist overexposure to sunshine.

 

 

第二篇        蚂蚁教学

题型: Y/N/NG & Matching(人名理论) & Multiple Choices

文章内容:

讲了蚂蚁老师的故事。话说一个叫F的人觉得蚂蚁可以通过leader和follower进行教学,证据就是当一个蚂蚁发现好吃的的时候,它会告诉其他蚂蚁而且在带其他蚂蚁的时候比他自己爬呀爬的速度慢老多了(好像是4倍的时间)。后来就有一个叫C的研究者反对说这不是teach,除非其他蚂蚁在其中真的学到啥了..后来还有个叫H的砖家说啦一个啥动物,妈妈会让孩子出来打会儿猎但是从不让它完成。以此说明不过是在锻炼孩儿的independence而非teaching也!后来F就不愿意了进行了一下小反驳。后来一个叫T的科学家又发言了说把那蚂蚁哦和人比是很不对滴噻

Y/N/NG:1. YES(ant use some certain items to help the locate the food)

               2. NO(那个人的东西一出版他的观点就得到了赞同)

               3. NOT GIVEN(动物的communication technology is the same or familiar to the human's communication technology)

               4. YES(Catheem mother教它的孩子获得食物)

Matching(人名理论):1. F某是two way教育;

                                  2. H某是不同意;

                                  3. T某是上一代对下一代的方式;

                                  4. 最后一个人表示蚂蚁和人就根本不能相提并论;

                                  5. 还有一句忘了,反正是F或H中一个人的观点。

                                  (4个人名对应5个理论)

Multiple Choices:1. 大蚂蚁在和教小蚂蚁拿食物时跑很快;

                             2. 大鸟喂小鸟食物;

                             3. 小鸟用tool练习;

                             4. 发出预警提醒同伴有坏人入侵

                            (8选4,动物行为:four animal behaviors mentioned by the author)

 

 

第三篇        Franklin小说

题型: 段落Matching & Summary

文章内容:

讲的是一个叫Franklin的航海人的故事

A.他航海的经历

B.回来以后他一直默默无闻

C.后来一个叫Naylon的人写了一篇小说,但是一点实事根据都没有(纯属胡编额..)

D.这个冒险者其实脑子不太好,反应太慢了,小的时候因为他反应太慢连个球都接不住..所以他就想去一个和他反应一样慢的地方,后来呀他就去了A啥..

E.在N的小说中,开篇描绘了一片冰山,冰山动的也慢化的也慢。

F.(过渡句)说F这个人长大了还是这么慢阿以至于话都说不清楚。但是他却恰得其所,在航海业上混得不错。因为它坚信要以静制动(又一个张三丰..)后来别人都老崇拜他了。

G.后来小说就火了。连支持马路限速的团体都支持它了,额!!

F.最后作者小总结了下下。说了一下这个“慢子现象”吼。

段落Matching:1 A 这个人在出海之前是干什么的

                         2 C关于这个书的什么是不确定的

                         3 D 这个人再小时候被欺负 bully 为什么他会有这样的举动

                         4 G

                         5 H为什么这个小说这么畅想

                         6这个人出海后回来发生了什么变化

Summary:1.personality; 2.sports; 3.a bully; 4.timelessness

                 (有词库,12选4)

Multiple Choices:1.D(文中为什么讲述冰?为了说明探险者须具备的条件,有耐心。)

                              2忘了

                              3.C(年轻的水手怎么看待老大的慢反应?respect him insist to overcome his difficulties)

                              4.C(对他讲话的形容,之前背诵无数字句he said the words and phrases he seriously memorized)

                              5.B(discovery of XX在叙述上有什么特点?是用一些separate,不太有connection的事例和东西写的)

                              6.A(为什么他红了?他的书反映了a aspect of the life)

 

原文参考:

http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n24/macf01_.html

Read it on the autobahn

Robert Macfarlane

The Discovery of Slowness by Sten Nadolny, translated by Ralph Freedman

John Franklin (1786-1847) was the most famous vanisher of the Victorian era. He joined the Navy as a midshipman at the age of 14, and fought in the battles of Copenhagen and Trafalgar. When peace with the French broke out, he turned his attention to Arctic exploration, and in particular to solving the conundrum of the Northwest Passage, the mythical clear-water route which would, if it existed, link the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans above the northern coast of the American continent. The first expedition Franklin led to the Arctic was an arduous overland journey from Hudson Bay to the shores of the so-called Polar Ocean east of the Coppermine River. Between 1819 and 1822, Franklin and his twenty-strong team covered 5550 miles on foot. Their expedition was a triumph of surveying – they managed to chart hundreds of miles of previously unknown coastline – but their inexperience in polar travel and inadequate supplies meant that the journey back to civilisation, across the ‘Barren Ground’, turned into a catastrophe. Food ran out while they were still days from safety, and the men were forced to eat lichen, their belts and their boots (which they boiled up to make leather soup). Nine men died of starvation. One of the French-Canadian guides, suspected of cannibalism, was executed.

 

There followed a career as a travel writer and salon-goer (‘the man who ate his boots’ was Franklin’s tag-line), a second long Arctic expedition, and a controversial spell as Governor of Van Diemen’s Land. Then, in May 1845, Franklin set off with two ships – the Erebus and the Terror – and 129 men on the voyage that would kill him. In July, the convoy was seen by two whalers, entering Lancaster Sound. Nothing more would be heard of it for 14 years. Had the ships sunk or been iced in? Were the men dead, or in need of rescue? Or had they broken through to the legendary open polar sea, beyond the ‘ice barrier’? Among the many responses to the Franklin Affair were Jules Verne’s Voyages et Aventures du capitaine Hattéras, a poem by Swinburne, a little-known series of paintings of the Erebus and the Terror by Turner, and a melodrama called The Frozen Deep, written by Wilkie Collins and produced by Dickens, with ‘authentic’ Arctic costumes for the explorers, and paper snow shredded and scattered onto the stage from above by ‘snowboys’.

 

Between 1847 and 1859, more than thirty expeditions were despatched in search of Franklin and his men, several of them funded by his widow-in-waiting, Jane. They explored thousands of miles of new land within the Arctic regions, and contributed to the development of sledge-travelling as a means of polar travel. It was not until 1859 that enough evidence had been gathered – reports from the Eskimos of the Boothia region, followed by relics of the expedition, then skeletons, and finally a piece of paper, cached in a cairn at the ill-named Point Victory – to reconstruct the fate of the expedition. The details are still uncertain, but it seems that in September 1846 in Victoria Strait, Franklin’s ships were caught in pack ice north-west of King William Island. Franklin died of a stroke in 1847, and was interred in a crypt blasted in the ice. Twenty-four men perished in the motionless ships before, in 1848, the survivors struck out on foot over the ice. Almost all succumbed to hunger, scurvy or lead poisoning while trying to reach land. The few who made it died shortly afterwards at an inlet on the Adelaide Peninsula, which was subsequently named Starvation Cove.

 

In his personal correspondence and in his published memoirs, Franklin comes across as a man dedicated to the external duties of war and exploration, who kept introspection and self-analysis to a minimum. His blandness makes him an amenably malleable subject for a novelist, and Sten Nadolny has taken full advantage of this licence. Most important, he has endowed his John Franklin with a defining character trait for which there is no historical evidence: Langsamkeit (‘slowness’, or ‘calmness’).

 

Slowness influences not only Franklin’s behaviour, but also his vision, his thought and his speech. The opening scene of The Discovery of Slowness – Die Entdeckung der Langsamkeit – depicts Franklin as a young boy, playing catch badly because his reaction time is too slow. Despite the bullying of his peers, Franklin resolves not to fall into step with ‘their way of doing things’. For Nadolny, Franklin’s fatal fascination with the Arctic stems from his desire to find an environment suited to his peculiar slowness. He describes Franklin as a boy dreaming of the ‘open water and the time without hours and days’ which exist in the far north, and of finding in the Arctic a place ‘where nobody would find him too slow’.

 

Ice is a slow mover. The compressed blue ice which is visible deep inside an Alpine crevasse will have fallen as snow several decades earlier. Polar pack ice takes at least two years to form. Frazil, the film of crystals which first appears on the surface of the sea, thickens into nilas, a silkily pliant layer which can keep time with a gentle ocean swell; nilas in turn consolidates into young ice, which then deepens during several seasons to become pack. Ice demands a corresponding patience from those who venture onto it. The explorers who have thrived at high latitudes and at high altitudes haven’t usually been men of great speed. They have tended instead to demonstrate unusual self-possession, a considerable capacity for boredom, and a talent for what the Scots call ‘tholing’, the uncomplaining endurance of suffering.

 

These were all qualities which the historical Franklin possessed in abundance, and so Nadolny’s concentration and exaggeration of them isn’t unreasonable. Even as an adult, his slowness of thought means that he is unable to speak fluently, so he memorises ‘entire fleets of words and batteries of response’, and speaks a languid, bric-a-brac language. In the Navy, his method of thinking first and acting later initially provokes mockery from his fellow sailors. But Franklin persists in doing things his way, and gradually earns the respect of those around him. To a commodore who tells him to speed up his report of an engagement, he replies: ‘When I tell something, sir, I use my own rhythm.’ A lieutenant says approvingly of him: ‘Because Franklin is so slow, he never loses time.’

 

Nadolny also brings his central metaphor of slowness to bear on the novel’s language. The narrative is written in a free indirect style which tracks the developing voice of the central character. The chapters describing Franklin’s early years are a medley of fragments, rhetorical questions, associative jumps and exclamation marks. In the later sections recounting Franklin’s first Arctic expedition, Nadolny brilliantly sets the narrative pace to the rhythms of the frozen landscape, and to the ‘slowness which is bred by hunger’. Days pass in a single sentence. When things do happen, our perception of them is filtered through Franklin’s way of seeing. Pieces of time drop out of the narrative at key moments, and we are left to infer what has happened. Here, for instance, is Nadolny’s description of a confrontation with one of the mutinying guides in the final days of the first Arctic expedition:

 

At this very moment Michel appeared in the tent entrance, his rifle at his hip, ready to fire. He was aiming at John. Hepburn drew his pistol fast. Michel turned the barrel of his rifle towards him. The picture of this scene remained fixed in John’s eyes . . . They did not say a word for minutes. Hepburn spoke first: ‘You shot him through the forehead, sir. He suffered nothing; he didn’t even know it.’ John answered: ‘This journey was one week too long.’ The next day they saw the fort at the lake shore.

 

Forster and Conrad pulled this trick of omitting the central action from a passage, so that the reader is at first as disoriented as the participants. It happens with the collision of the Patna in Lord Jim, with the ‘incident’ in the Marabar Caves, and with the carriage crash in Where Angels Fear to Tread.

 

Since it was first published in Germany in 1983, The Discovery of Slowness has sold more than a million copies and been translated into 15 languages. It has been named as one of German literature’s twenty ‘contemporary classics’, and it has been adopted as a manual and manifesto by European pressure groups and institutions representing causes as diverse as sustainable development, the Protestant Church, management science, motoring policy and pacifism.

 

The various groups that have taken the novel up have one thing in common: a dislike of the high-speed culture of Postmodernity. Nadolny’s Franklin appeals to them because he is immune to ‘the compulsion to be constantly occupied’, and to the idea that ‘someone was better if he could do the same thing fast.’ Several German churches have used him in their symposia and focus groups as an example of peacefulness, piety and self-confidence. A centre for paraplegics in Basle organises a regular Marsch der Langsamkeit (a ‘march of slowness’ or ‘of the slow’), inspired by the novel. Nadolny has appeared as a guest speaker for RIO, a Lucerne-based organisation which aims to reconcile management principles with ideas of environmental sustainability. The novel has even become involved in the debate about speed limits on German roads. Drive down an autobahn today, and you will see large road-side signs proclaiming ‘die Entdeckung der Gelassenheit’ (Gelassenheit means ‘tranquillity’ or ‘unhurriedness’), a slogan which deliberately plays off the title of the novel.

 

A management journal in the US described The Discovery of Slowness as a ‘major event not only for connoisseurs of fine historical fiction, but also for those of us who concern themselves with leadership, communication and systems-thinking issues’. It’s easy to see where the attraction lies for the management crowd. The novel is crammed with quotations about time-efficiency, punctiliousness and profitability: ‘As a rule, there are always three points in time: the right one, the lost one and the premature one.’ ‘What did too late mean? They hadn’t waited for it long enough, that’s what it meant.’

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