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梅晗,Nichol

Notting Hill,the blue gate...

 
 
 

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中国在线教育雅思阅读No1,一年间词霸营和阅读高分营学员愈2万.历任天道国际教育集团教学教务部总监,新东方VIP学习部教学总监, 英联邦项目经理,新东方集团培训师. 非典型双鱼男,双子,射手,狮子自动回避

2010.09.16&25雅思A类阅读回忆  

2010-10-04 01:16:19|  分类: 雅思阅读机经 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

2009.09.16雅思学术类阅读

第一篇        植物命名

题型: T/F/NG & Summary & Multiple Choice

 

 

第二篇        冰山融化

题型: T/F/NG & Summary

 

 

 

第三篇        关于Music

题型: LOH & Matching & Multiple Choice

 

 

2010.09.25雅思学术类阅读

第一篇        鸟的进化

题型: Table Completion & T/F/NG

文章内容:

达尔文进化论用到的那种鸟,被进一步研究。某一种鸟的bill size会根据气候,如干旱(drought)的影响而在下一代产生变化,large bill and short bill----最后medium-sized bills. 以及最后讨论一个无人的岛屿上的鸟的bill size的演变。

Table Completion:三个时间段的气候状况对鸟类的种类和食物的影响,全篇型

                               7.rice8.with …

T/F/NG1.某人的发现QUEST某人的理论;

               2.某鸟比某鸟随食物变化;

               3.02-03所有的种类都受到影响;

               4.有两个鬼研究整个岛;

               5.有证据表明物种

阅读题源:

Today, the quest continues. On Daphne Major—one of the most desolate of the Galápagos Islands, an uninhabited volcanic cone where cacti and shrubs seldom grow higher than a researcher’s knee—Peter and Rosemary Grant have spent more than three decades watching Darwin’s finches respond to the challenges of storms, drought and competition for food. Biologists at Princeton University, the Grants know and recognize many of the individual birds on the island and can trace the birds’ lineages back through time. They have witnessed Darwin’s principle in action again and again, over many generations of finches.

 

The Grants’ most dramatic insights have come from watching the evolving bill of the medium ground finch. The plumage of this sparrow-sized bird ranges from dull brown to jet black. At first glance, it may not seem particularly striking, but among scientists who study evolutionary biology, the medium ground finch is a superstar. Its bill is a middling example in the array of shapes and sizes found among Galápagos finches: heftier than that of the small ground finch, which specializes in eating small, soft seeds, but petite compared to that of the large ground finch, an expert at cracking and devouring big, hard seeds.

 

When the Grants began their study in the 1970s, only two species of finch lived on Daphne Major, the medium ground finch and the cactus finch. The island is so small that the researchers were able to count and catalogue every bird. When a severe drought hit in 1977, the birds soon devoured the last of the small, easily eaten seeds. Smaller members of the medium ground finch population, lacking the bill strength to crack large seeds, died out.

 

Bill and body size are inherited traits, and the next generation had a high proportion of big-billed individuals. The Grants had documented natural selection at work—the same process that, over many millennia, directed the evolution of the Galápagos’ 14 unique finch species, all descended from a common ancestor that reached the islands a few million years ago.

 

Eight years later, heavy rains brought by an El Ni?o transformed the normally meager vegetation on Daphne Major. Vines and other plants that in most years struggle for survival suddenly flourished, choking out the plants that provide large seeds to the finches. Small seeds came to dominate the food supply, and big birds with big bills died out at a higher rate than smaller ones.

 

Natural selection is observable,” Rosemary Grant says. “It happens when the environment changes. When local conditions reverse themselves, so does the direction of adaptation.”

 

Recently, the Grants witnessed another form of natural selection acting on the medium ground finch: competition from bigger, stronger cousins. In 1982, a third finch, the large ground finch, came to live on Daphne Major. The stout bills of these birds resemble the business end of a crescent wrench. Their arrival was the first such colonization recorded on the Galápagos in nearly a century of scientific observation. “We realized,” Peter Grant says, “we had a very unusual and potentially important event to follow.” For 20 years, the large ground finch coexisted with the medium ground finch, which shared the supply of large seeds with its bigger-billed relative. Then, in 2002 and 2003, another drought struck. None of the birds nested that year, and many died out. Medium ground finches with large bills, crowded out of feeding areas by the more powerful large ground finches, were hit particularly hard.

 

When wetter weather returned in 2004, and the finches nested again, the new generation of the medium ground finch was dominated by smaller birds with smaller bills, able to survive on smaller seeds. This situation, says Peter Grant, marked the first time that biologists have been able to follow the complete process of an evolutionary change due to competition between species and the strongest response to natural selection that he had seen in 33 years of tracking Galápagos finches.

 

On the inhabited island of Santa Cruz, just south of Daphne Major, Andrew Hendry of McGill University and Jeffrey Podos of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst have discovered a new, man-made twist in finch evolution. Their study focused on birds living near the Academy Bay research station, on the fringe of the town of Puerto Ayora. The human population of the area has been growing fast—from 900 people in 1974 to 9,582 in 2001. “Today Puerto Ayora is full of hotels and mai tai bars,” Hendry says. “People have taken this extremely arid place and tried to turn it into a Caribbean resort.”

 

Academy Bay records dating back to the early 1960s show that medium ground finches captured there had either small or large bills. Very few of the birds had mid-size bills. The finches appeared to be in the early stages of a new adaptive radiation: If the trend continued, the medium ground finch on Santa Cruz could split into two distinct subspecies, specializing in different types of seeds. But in the late 1960s and early 70s, medium ground finches with medium-sized bills began to thrive at Academy Bay along with small and large-billed birds. The booming human population had introduced new food sources, including exotic plants and bird feeding stations stocked with rice. Billsize, once critical to the finches’ survival, no longer made any difference. “Now an intermediate bill can do fine,” Hendry says.

 

At a control site distant from Puerto Ayora, and relatively untouched by humans, the medium ground finch population remains split between large- and small-billed birds. On undisturbed parts of Santa Cruz, there is no ecological niche for a middling medium ground finch, and the birds continue to diversify. In town, though there are still many finches, once-distinct populations are merging.

 

The finches of Santa Cruz demonstrate a subtle process in which human meddling can stop evolution in its tracks, ending the formation of new species. In a time when global biodiversity continues its downhill slide, Darwin’s finches have yet another unexpected lesson to teach. “If we hope to regain some of the diversity that’s already been lost,” Hendry says, “we need to protect not just existing creatures, but also the processes that drive the origin of new species.”

 

 

第二篇        电视上瘾(Television Addiction    这是课上点过的重点啊

题型: 段落Matching & T/F/NG & Matching(人名观点)

文章内容:

对看电视过多的研究,电视上瘾有毒品的效果,heavy TV addicted and light addicted。很多学者的名字出现,以及各自对电视的研究的结论。严重电视上瘾者其实看电视越长越空虚,关上电视更空虚,因为电视只是输入。调查日本中产阶级比富人更感到guilty after看了很长电视的时候。以及电视不像运动再看后会让人心情愉悦。还举了一些例子,讲当家庭生活没有电视时,家庭会很难适应现在的生活。

段落Matching1.N/A 2.重度电视迷比轻度电视迷要 3.N/A

T/F/NG1.电视上瘾与毒品类似;

               2.男人比女人更上瘾;

               3.看电视比体育更能促进情绪;

               4.富人比穷人更上瘾;

               5.看电视是因为没事干

Matching1.看电视容易放弃自己的任务;

                  2.家庭难接受没电视的日子;

                  3.多种类型的媒体刺激了电视;

                  4&5.N/A

 

 

第三篇        传统纸张与电子书

题型: LOH & Multiple Choice & Summary & Multiple Choice(主旨)

文章内容:

Computer functions can not replace the paper in some certain activities,主要说paper的各种用途和好处。

第二段:IMF(国际货币基金组织)的专家在进行讨论时都用纸不用电脑,因为纸便于传递交换思想,只有在最后定稿时才用电脑。

三四段:中间讲办公桌上堆一堆文件并代表思维浑沦,相反该人会根据priority 去码放文件顺序,越放上面的越重要。

第五段:举例一个boss觉得一个employer的桌子很乱,让他每次上级检查时都把文件放在一个盒子里面,因为boss觉得用paper是生活在过去的表现,而电脑是未来的体现(此处指办公模式)。文章结论说其实不是员工生活在过去,而是老板生活在过去。

结尾端:介绍了电脑的一个好处,还说如果先出现电脑,在出现纸,人们就不会觉得用纸不好了。

LOHA-G7道题

Multiple Choice1.D 2.B 3.Dmanager相信

Summarypaper的三个有点tangibleflexibletailorable

Multiple Choice:选C

                           the main reason about why the paper can't be replaced by computers

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